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2017年英語專業八級真題聽力 Mini-lecture(1)

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The Modes of Language

語言的模式
Good morning, everyone!
大家早上好!
In our last lecture, I was talking about language as part of our semiotic system.
上次我們講到,語言是符號系統的一部分。
And today I am going to move on to another topic, that is, the modes of language.
今天我們講下一個話題,語言的模式。
As you may know, messages are transmitted in human language most frequently through two primary modes: speech and writing.
大家都知道,人類語言中的信息通常以兩種基本模式傳遞:“說”和“寫”。
Well, you know, there is also a third mode, which is not that frequently used as speech and writing.
當然,還有第三種模式,但不如“說”和“寫”那么常用。
The third mode is called signing, which is used by deaf people.
第三種模式叫作手勢語,聽障者經常用這種方式。
But in today's lecture, we will just focus on speech and writing, and the specific features of these two modes.
但是今天,我們主要講“說”和“寫”,以及這兩種模式的特點。
In linguistics, it is commonly noted that speech is primary and writing secondary.
語言學上普遍認為,先有“說”,才有“寫”。
Linguistics take this position because all languages are spoken except those dead languages such as Latin, which is only existent in written form.
語言學有這樣的觀點,是因為世界上說什么語言的人都有,除了那些已經廢棄的語言,比如只以書面形式繼續存在著的拉丁語。
All children will naturally acquire the spoken version of a language if they are exposed to it.
直接接觸一種語言的話,所有兒童都會自然習得這種語言的口語。
They acquire the spoken form of their mother tongue during the formative period of language acquisition.
在語言習得的形成階段,他們會自然習得母語的口語。
However, to become literate, a child will need some kind of formal schooling in reading and writing.
但是,到了學讀書寫字的時候,孩子們要去接受學校的正式讀寫教育。
In many respects, we might call speech "primary" and writing "secondary".
很多情況下,我們會認為先有“說”才有“寫”。
It implies that writing has a second-class status when compared with speech.
也就是說,跟“說”比起來,“寫”是第二位的。
In fact, it is more accurate to view the two modes as having different but complementary roles.
其實,比較恰當的看法是,這兩種模式作用不同卻互為補充。
For instance, in most legal systems, while an oral contract is legally binding, a written contract is preferred.
比如,在很多法律體系中,雖然口頭約定是有法律約束力的,但是人們還是傾向才用書面約定。
The reason is simple—unlike speech, writing provides a permanent record of the contract.
原因很簡單。“寫”下來的文件可以作為約定的永久備案,“說”的就不行。
Thus, if the terms of the contract are disputed, the written record of the contract can be consulted and interpreted.
所以,如果約定條款有爭議,雙方可以查閱書面約定,重新解讀。
Disputes over an oral contract will involve one person's recollection of the contract versus another person's.
口頭約定如果有爭議,雙方會各自回憶約定內容,才能對質。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
contract ['kɔntrækt,kən'trækt]

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n. 合同,契約,婚約,合約
v. 訂合同,縮

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mode [məud]

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n. 方式,樣式,模式,風格,時興
n.

 
specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
n. 特

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involve [in'vɔlv]

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vt. 包含,使陷入,使忙于,使卷入,牽涉

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acquisition [.ækwi'ziʃən]

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n. 獲得,所獲之物

 
linguistics [liŋ'gwistiks]

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n. 語言學

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permanent ['pə:mənənt]

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adj. 永久的,持久的
n. 燙發

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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status ['steitəs]

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n. 地位,身份,情形,狀況

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acquire [ə'kwaiə]

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vt. 獲得,取得,學到

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