手機APP下載

您現在的位置: 首頁 > 口譯筆譯 > 英漢翻譯素材 > 文化與教育 > 正文

《關于中美經貿磋商的中方立場》白皮書(3)(中英對照)

來源:可可英語 編輯:villa ?  VIP免費外教試聽課 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

Box 2: The Chinese and American economies are interlinked, and bilateral trade and investment are mutually beneficial

專欄2 中美經濟相互融合,貿易投資惠澤雙方
China and the US are each other's largest trading partner and important source of investment. In 2018, bilateral trade in goods and services exceeded US$750 billion, and two-way direct investment approached US$160 billion. China-US commercial cooperation has brought substantial benefits to both countries and both peoples.
中美互為最大貿易伙伴國和重要投資來源地。2018年,雙邊貨物和服務貿易額超過7500億美元,雙向直接投資累計近1600億美元。中美經貿合作給兩國和兩國人民帶來了實實在在的利益。
According to China Customs, the trade in goods between China and the US grew from less than US$2.5 billion in 1979 when the two countries forged diplomatic ties to US$633.5 billion in 2018, a 252-fold increase. In 2018, the US was China's largest trading partner and export market, and the sixth largest source of imports. According to the US Department of Commerce, in 2018 China was the largest trading partner of the US, its third largest export market, and its largest source of imports. China is the key export market for US airplanes, soybeans, automobiles, integrated circuits and cotton. During the ten years from 2009 to 2018, China was one of the fastest growing export markets for American goods, with an annual average increase of 6.3 percent and an aggregate growth of 73.2 percent, higher than the average growth of 56.9 percent represented by other regions in the world.
在雙邊貿易方面,根據中國海關統計,中美貨物貿易額從1979年建交時的不足25億美元,增至2018年的6335億美元,增長了252倍。2018年,美國是中國第一大貿易伙伴國第一大出口市場、第六大進口來源地。根據美國商務部統計,2018年,中國是美國第一大貿易伙伴第三大出口市場第大進口來源地。中國是美國飛機、大豆、汽車、集成電路、棉花的主要出口市場。2009年至2018年十年間,中國是美國貨物出口增長最快的市場之一,年均增速為6.3%,累計增長73.2%,高于美國對世界其他地區56.9%的平均增幅。
Trade in services between China and the US is flourishing and highly complementary. The two countries have conducted extensive, in-depth, and mutually-beneficial cooperation in tourism, culture, and intellectual property. China is the largest destination for US tourists in the Asia-Pacific and the US is the largest overseas destination for Chinese students. According to Chinese figures, two-way trade in services rose from US$27.4 billion in 2006, the earliest year with available statistics, to US$125.3 billion in 2018, a 3.6-fold increase. In 2018, China's services trade deficit with the US reached US$48.5 billion.
中美服務貿易蓬勃發展、互補性強,兩國在旅游、文化、知識產權等領域開展了廣泛深人、有益的合作。中國成為美國在亞太地區第一大旅游目的地,美國成為中國學生出境留學第一大目的國。根據中方統計,中美服務貿易額從統計開始的2006年274億美元增至2018年的1253億美元,增長了3.6倍。2018年,中國對美服務貿易逆差達485億美元。
Over the past forty years, two-way investment between China and the US has grown from near zero to approximately US$160 billion, and this cooperation has proved fruitful. According to MOFCOM, by the end of 2018 accumulative Chinese business direct investment in the US exceeded US$73.17 billion. The rapid growth of Chinese business investment in the US has contributed to local economic growth, job creation, and tax revenues. According to MOFCOM, the paid-in investment by the US in China was US$85.19 billion by the end of 2018. In 2017, the total annual sales revenues of US-invested companies in China were US$700 billion, with profits exceeding US$50 billion.
過去40年,中美雙向投資由幾乎為零到累計近1600億美元,合作卓有成效。根據中國商務部統計,截至2018年底,中國企業在美國直接投資金額731.7億美元。中國企業在美國的投資迅猛增長,為促進當地經濟發展,增加就業和稅收作出了積極貢獻。美對華投資方面,根據中國商務部統計,截至2018年底,美國對華實際投資851.9億美元。2017年,美資企業在華年銷售收人7000億美元,利潤超過500億美元。
Therefore, if trade in goods and services as well as two-way investment are taken into account, China-US trade and economic relations are mutually beneficial, rather than the US "being taken advantage of".
因此,如果把中美雙方在貨物貿易、服務貿易和雙向投資等方面綜合考慮,雙方經貿往來是惠澤彼此的關系,而非所謂美國“吃虧”的結果。
(I) The tariff measures the US imposed harm others and are of no benefit to itself
(一)美國加征關稅措施損人不利己
The US administration has imposed additional tariffs on Chinese goods exported to the US, impeding two-way trade and investment cooperation and undermining market confidence and economic stability in the two countries and globally. The US tariff measures lead to a decrease in the volume of China's export to the US, which fell by 9.7 percent year-on-year in the first four months of 2019, dropping for five months in a row. In addition, as China has to impose tariffs as a countermeasure to US tariff hikes, US exports to China have dropped for eight months in a row. The uncertainty brought by US-China economic and trade friction made companies in both countries more hesitant about investing. China's investment in the US continues to fall and the growth rate of US investment in China has also slowed down. According to Chinese statistics, direct investment by Chinese companies in the US was US$5.79 billion in 2018, down by 10 percent year-on-year. In 2018, paid-in US investment in China was US$2.69 billion, upby only 1.5 percent year-on-year compared with an increase of 11 percent in 2017. With the outlook for China-US trade friction unclear, the WTO has lowered its forecast for global trade growth in 2019 from 3.7 percent to 2.6 percent.
美國政府對中國輸美商品加征關稅,阻礙雙邊貿易投資合作,影響兩國乃至全球市場信心和經濟平穩運行。美國的關稅措施導致中國對美出口額下滑,2019年1月至4月同比下降9.7%,連續5個月下降。同時,由于中國不得不針對美國加稅采取加征關稅應對,美國對華出口連續8個月下降。中美經貿摩擦帶來的不確定性使兩國企業對開展投資合作持觀望態度,中國對美投資持續下滑,美國對華投資增速也明顯降低。據中國有關方面統計,2018年中國企業對美直接投資57.9億美元,同比下降10%。2018年美國實際對華投資金額26.9億美元,增速從2017年的11%大幅回落至1.5%。由于中美經貿摩擦前景不明,世界貿易組織將2019年全球貿易增長速度由3.7%下調至2.6%。
(II) The trade war has not "made America great again"
(二)貿易戰沒有給美國帶來所謂的“再次偉大”
The tariff measures have not boosted American economic growth. Instead, they have done serious harm to the US economy.
加征關稅措施不僅沒有推動美國經濟增長,反而帶來了嚴重傷害。
First, the tariff measures have significantly increased production costs for US companies. The Chinese and US manufacturing sectors are highly dependent on each other. Many American manufacturers depend on China's raw materials and intermediary goods. As it is hard for them to find good alternative suppliers in the short term, they will have to bear the costs of the tariff hikes.
一是提高美國企業生產成本。中美制造業相互依存度很高,許多美國制造商依賴中國的原材料和中間品,短期內難以找到合適的替代供應商,只能承擔加征關稅的成本。
Second, the tariff measures lead to domestic price hikes in the US. The import of value-for-money consumer goods from China is a key factor behind the long-term low inflation in the US. After the additional tariffs were imposed, the final selling price of Chinese products increased, leaving American consumers effectively bearing some tariff costs. According to research by the US National Retail Federation, the 25 percent additional tariffs on furniture alone will cost the US consumer an additional US$4.6 billion per year.
二是抬升美國國內物價。進口中國物美價廉的消費品是美國通脹率長期保持低位的重要因素之一。加征關稅后,中國產品最終銷售價格提高,實際上美國消費者也承擔了關稅成本。美國全國零售商聯合會研究顯示,僅對中國家具征收25%關稅一項,就使美國消費者每年多付出46億美元的額外支出。
Third, the tariff measures have an impact on US economic growth and people's livelihood. A joint report by the US Chamber of Commerce and the Rhodium Group in March 2019 showed that, under the impact of China-US economic and trade friction, US GDP in 2019 and the next four years could decrease by US$64-91 billion per year, about 0.3-0.5 percent of total US GDP. If the US imposes 25 percent tariffs on all Chinese goods exported to the US, US GDP will decrease by US$1 trillion in the next ten years cumulatively. According to a research report in February 2019 by Trade Partnership, an American think-tank, if the US imposes 25 percent additional tariffs on all imported Chinese goods, US GDP will decrease by 1.01 percent, with 2.16 million job losses and an additional annual burden of US$2,294 on a family of four.
三是影響美國經濟增長和民生。美國商會和榮鼎集團2019年3月聯合發布的報告顯示,受中美經貿摩擦影響,2019年及未來4年美國國內生產總值將可能每年減少640億至910億美元,約占美國國內生產總值總額的0.3%-0.5%。如美國對所有中國輸美商品征收25%關稅,未來10年美國國內生產總值將累計減少1萬億美元。美國智庫“貿易伙伴”(Trade Partnership)2019年2月發布的研究報告顯示,如美國對所有中國輸美商品加征25%的關稅,美國國內生產總值將減少1.01%,就業崗位將減少216萬個,一個四口之家每年支出將增加2294美元。
Fourth, the tariff measures lead to barriers to US exports to China. The 2019 State Export Report, published by the US-China Business Council on May 1, 2019, stated that in the ten years from 2009 to 2018, US exports to China supported over 1.1 million jobs. The Chinese market continues its importance to US economic growth. Forty-eight states of the US have increased their goods exports to China during the last decade – 44 of them by double digits – while in 2018, when economic and trade friction worsened, only 16 states increased their goods exports to China. Thirty-four states exported fewer goods to China, with 24 of them seeing a double-digit decrease. The Midwestern agricultural states were hit particularly hard. Under tariff measures, exports of American agricultural produce to China decreased by 33.1 percent year-on-year, including a 50 percent drop in soybeans. US businesses are worried that they might lose the Chinese market, which they have been cultivating for nearly 40 years.
四是阻礙美對華出口。美中貿易全國委員會2019年5月1日發布的《各州對華出口報告——2019》指出,2009年至2018年十年間,美國對華出口支撐了超過110萬個美國就業崗位,中國市場對美國經濟至關重要。在此十年中,美國48個州對華貨物出口實現累計增長,其中44個州實現兩位數增長,但在中美經貿摩擦加劇的2018年,美國僅有16個州對華貨物出口實現增長,34個州對華出口下降,其中24個州出現兩位數降幅,中西部農業州受損最為嚴重。受關稅措施影響的美國農產品對華出口同比減少33.1%,其中大豆降幅近50%,美國業界擔心從此失去培育了近40年的中國市場。
(III) US trade bullying harms the world
(三)美國貿易霸凌行徑殃及全球
Economic globalization is a firmly-established trend of the times. Beggar-thy-neighbor unilateralism and protectionism are unpopular. The trade protectionist measures taken by the US go against the WTO rules, damage the multilateral trading system, seriously disrupt global industrial chains and supply chains, undermine market confidence, and pose a serious challenge to global economic recovery and a major threat to the trend of economic globalization.
經濟全球化是不可阻擋的時代潮流,以鄰為壑的單邊主義、保護主義不得人心。美國采取的一系列貿易保護措施,違反世界貿易組織規則,損害多邊貿易體制,嚴重干擾全球產業鏈和供應鏈,損害市場信心,給全球經濟復蘇帶來嚴峻挑戰,給經濟全球化趨勢造成重大威脅。
First, the US measures are undermining the authority of the multilateral trading system. The US has launched a series of unilateral investigations, including those under Sections 201, 232 and 301, and imposed tariff measures. These are a serious breach of the most fundamental and central WTO rules, including most-favored-nation treatment and tariff binding. Such unilateralist and protectionist actions have harmed the interests of China and other WTO members. More importantly, they have undermined the authority of the WTO and its dispute settlement system, and exposed the multilateral trading system and international trade order to peril.
一是損害多邊貿易體制權威。美國依據國內法發起“201”“232”“301”等一系列單邊調查,并采取加征關稅措施,嚴重違反世界貿易組織最基本最核心的最惠國待遇、關稅約束等規則。這種單邊主義、保護主義行為不僅損害中國和其他成員利益,更損害了世界貿易組織及其爭端解決機制的權威性,使多邊貿易體制和國際貿易秩序面臨險境。
Second, the US measures threaten global economic growth. With the shadow of the international financial crisis still lingering over the global economy, the US government has escalated economic and trade friction and hiked additional tariffs, provoking corresponding measures by the countries involved. This disrupts global economic and trade order, dampens world economic recovery, and undermines the development of companies and the well-being of people in all countries, plunging the world economy into the "recession trap".
二是威脅全球經濟增長。全球經濟尚未完全走出國際金融危機的陰影,美國政府升級經貿摩擦、提高關稅水平,相關國家不得不采取相應措施,導致全球經貿秩序紊亂,阻礙全球經濟復蘇,殃及各國企業發展和人民福祉,使全球經濟落入“衰退陷阱”。2019年1月,世界銀行發布《全球經濟展望》報告,將2019年全球經濟增長預期進一步降至2.9%,貿易關系持續緊張是主要下行風險之一。國際貨幣基金組織2019年4月發布的《世界經濟展望》報告,將2019年全球經濟增長預期從2018年預計的3.6%下調至3.3%,并表示經貿摩擦可能會進一步抑制全球經濟增長,繼續削弱本已疲弱的投資。
Third, the US moves disrupt global industrial and supply chains. China and the US are both key links in global industrial and supply chains. Given the large volume of intermediary goods and components from other countries in Chinese end-products exported to the US, US tariff hikes will hurt all the multinationals – not least those from the US – that work with Chinese companies. The tariff measures artificially drive up the costs of supply chains, and undermine their stability and security. As a result, some businesses are forced to readjust their global supply chains at the expense of optimal resource allocation.
三是擾亂全球產業鏈、供應鏈。中美都是全球產業鏈、供應鏈的重要環節。中國對美出口的最終產品中包含大量從他國進口的中間產品和零部件。美國對來自中國的進口產品加征關稅,受害的將是包括美國企業在內的與中國企業合作的眾多跨國公司。加征關稅措施導致供應鏈成本人為增加,影響供應鏈的穩定和安全。部分企業被迫調整供應鏈全球布局,全球資源無法實現最佳配置。
It is foreseeable that the latest US tariff hikes on China, far from resolving issues, will only make things worse for all sides. China stands firm in opposition. Recently, the US administration imposed "long-arm jurisdiction" and sanctions against Huawei and other Chinese companies on the fabricated basis of national security, to which China is also firmly opposed.
可以預見,美國最新采取的對華關稅升級措施,不但解決不了問題,還將進一步損害各方利益,中國對此堅決反對。近期,美國政府以所謂國家安全的“莫須有”名義,連續對華為等多家中國企業實施“長臂管轄”制裁,中國同樣堅決反對。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
dispute [di'spju:t]

想一想再看

v. 爭論,爭議,辯駁,質疑
n. 爭論,爭吵

聯想記憶
effectively [i'fektivli]

想一想再看

adv. 事實上,有效地

 
fruitful ['fru:tfəl]

想一想再看

adj. 多產的,富有成效的

 
unpopular ['ʌn'pɔpjulə]

想一想再看

adj. 不流行的,不受歡迎的

 
addition [ə'diʃən]

想一想再看

n. 增加,附加物,加法

聯想記憶
exposed [iks'pəuzd]

想一想再看

adj. 暴露的,無掩蔽的,暴露于風雨中的 v. 暴露,

 
stability [stə'biliti]

想一想再看

n. 穩定性,居于修道院

聯想記憶
fundamental [.fʌndə'mentl]

想一想再看

adj. 基本的,根本的,重要的
n. 基本原

 
import [im'pɔ:t]

想一想再看

n. 進口,進口商品,意義
v. 進口,輸入

聯想記憶
forecast ['fɔ:kɑ:st]

想一想再看

n. 預測,預報
v. 預測

聯想記憶
?

新東方中高口譯網絡課程:試聽更多口譯網絡課程>>

發布評論我來說2句

    可可英語官方微信(微信號:ikekenet)

    每天向大家推送短小精悍的英語學習資料.

    添加方式1.掃描上方可可官方微信二維碼。
    添加方式2.搜索微信號ikekenet添加即可。
    极限一码公式规律