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經濟學人:東南亞國家對洋垃圾進口說“不”

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Asia

來源于《亞洲》版塊
Recycling
回收利用
Refusing refuse
拒絕廢棄物
South-East Asia is fed up with foreign waste
東南亞受夠了外國垃圾
There is no point collecting recyclable waste unless someone is willing to buy it and actually do the recycling. Until late 2017 China was the world’s biggest importer of scrap by far. This made sense. Like most other forms of manufacturing, recycling is cheaper there. Moreover, Chinese factories consumed lots of the resulting plastic and pulp, whereas developed economies, which tend to be net importers of goods, had plenty of plastic bottles and cardboard boxes to spare. It also helped that shipping to China was cheap, since ships would often otherwise return to the country with empty containers.
只有有人愿意購買可回收的垃圾,并實際進行回收,收集可回收垃圾才有意義。到2017年底為止,中國一直是世界上最大的廢料進口國。這是有道理的。像大多數其他形式的制造業一樣,回收在中國更便宜。此外,中國工廠消耗了大量由此產生的塑料和紙漿,而發達經濟體(往往是商品的凈進口國)則有大量塑料瓶和紙箱可供備用。此外,運往中國的航運成本較低也起到了一定作用,因為如果不這樣做,船只往往會帶著空集裝箱返回中國。

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All this came to a halt when the Chinese government banned the import of all but the purest scrap material in 2017, killing a trade worth $24bn a year. Waste dealers in the rich world had to scramble to find new buyers. South-East Asia soon emerged as the pre-eminent destination for foreign waste. Unfortunately, the region’s recycling industry is much smaller than China’s; its processing plants were quickly overwhelmed. Plastics from America and Europe have piled up in landfills. Lots of toxic rubbish has simply been torched.

2017年,中國政府禁止進口除最純凈廢料外的所有廢料,導致每年240億美元的貿易損失。從此之后,情況便截然不同。富裕國家的廢品經銷商不得不爭先恐后地尋找新的買家。東南亞很快成為外國垃圾的首選目的地。不幸的是,該地區的回收產業規模遠遠小于中國;它的加工廠很快就應接不暇。來自美國和歐洲的塑料堆積在垃圾填埋場。許多有毒的垃圾被簡單地焚燒了。
South-East Asian governments are not pleased. They have begun to ban or crimp imports themselves, abruptly diminishing a booming business. On May 28th Yeo Bee Yin, Malaysia’s environment minister, complaining that “garbage [was] being traded under the pretext of recycling”, announced that her government would be sending back 3,000 tonnes of foreign plastic. Much of it was of poor quality, she noted, and hence unrecyclable.
東南亞各國政府對此并不滿意。并已經開始禁止或限制進口,這突然削弱了蓬勃發展的業務。5月28日,馬來西亞環境部長楊碧吟抱怨“垃圾(以回收為借口)被交易”,并宣布馬來西亞政府將退回3000噸外國塑料。她指出,這些垃圾大部分質量很差,因此無法回收。
Thailand plans to ban plastic-waste imports by 2021. Vietnam’s government has similar ideas. Kate O’Neill of the University of California, Berkeley, reckons these bans are motivated not only by environmental concerns but also by pride: Asia does not want to be the world’s dumping ground.
泰國計劃到2021年禁止塑料垃圾進口。越南政府也有類似的想法。加州大學伯克利分校的凱特•奧尼爾認為,這些禁令不僅是出于環境考慮,也是出于自豪感:亞洲不想成為世界的垃圾場。
Rodrigo Duterte, the president of the Philippines, recently threatened to go to war with Canada if it did not take back a shipment of plastic scrap. Canada agreed to take it away, and Mr Duterte stopped blustering after an election had passed. All the same, rich-world exporters might want to start work on Plan C.
菲律賓總統杜特爾特最近威脅稱,如果加拿大不收回一批塑料廢料,他將與加拿大開戰。加拿大同意運回塑料廢料,杜特爾特在大選結束后停止了咆哮。盡管如此,發達國家的出口商可能還是想開始實施C計劃。

譯文由可可原創,僅供學習交流使用,未經許可請勿轉載。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
motivated ['məutiveitid]

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adj. 有動機的;有積極性的 v. 使產生動機;激發…

 
pride [praid]

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n. 自豪,驕傲,引以自豪的東西,自尊心
vt

 
pulp [pʌlp]

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n. 果肉,紙漿,木髓,牙髓,低級刊物 vt. 使成為漿

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cardboard ['kɑ:dbɔ:d]

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n. 厚紙板

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refuse [ri'fju:z]

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v. 拒絕
n. 垃圾,廢物

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spare [spɛə]

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adj. 多余的,閑置的,備用的,簡陋的
v.

 
willing ['wiliŋ]

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adj. 愿意的,心甘情愿的

 
destination [.desti'neiʃən]

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n. 目的地,終點,景點

 
diminishing

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v. 減少;衰減;遞減;削弱…的權勢(diminish的

 
plastic ['plæstik, plɑ:stik]

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adj. 塑料的,可塑的,造型的,整形的,易受影響的

 
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